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📝Reason and Responsibility Readings in Some Basic Problems of Philosophy Cloth SYNOPSIS : This best-selling text has long been the standard by which all other introduction to philosophy anthologies have been judged. The Thirteenth Edition of REASON AND RESPONSIBILITY: READINGS IN SOME BASIC PROBLEMS OF PHILOSOPHY continues the book's trad
📒The Development Of Ethics Volume 2 ✍ Terence Irwin
📝The Development of Ethics Volume 2 SYNOPSIS : The Development of Ethics is a selective historical and critical study of moral philosophy in the Socratic tradition, with special attention to Aristotelian naturalism. It discusses the main topics of moral philosophy as they have developed historically, including: the human good, human nature, justice, friendship, and morality; the methods of moral inquiry; the virtues and their connexions; will, freedom, and responsibility; reason and emotion; relativism, subjectivism, and realism; the theological aspect of morality. This volume examines early modern moral philosophy from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. Volume 3 will continue the story up to Rawls's Theory of Justice. The present volume begins with Suarez's interpretation of Scholastic moral philosophy, and examines seventeenth- and eighteenth- century responses to the Scholastic outlook, to see how far they constitute a distinctively different conception of moral philosophy. The treatments of natural law by Grotius, Hobbes, Cumberland, and Pufendorf are treated in some detail. Disputes about moral facts, moral judgments, and moral motivation, are traced through Cudworth, Clarke, Balguy, Hutcheson, Hume, Price, and Reid. Butler's defence of a naturalist account of morality is examined and compared with the Aristotelian and Scholastic views discussed in Volume 1. The volume ends with a survey of the persistence of voluntarism in English moral philosophy, and a brief discussion of the contrasts and connexions between Rousseau and earlier views on natural law. The emphasis of the book is not purely descriptive, narrative, or exegetical, but also philosophical. Irwin discusses the comparative merits of different views, the difficulties that they raise, and how some of the difficulties might be resolved. The book tries to present the leading moral philosophers of the past as participants in a rational discussion that is still being carried on, and tries to help the reader to participate in this discussion.
📒From Morality To The End Of Reason ✍ Ingmar Persson
📝From Morality to the End of Reason SYNOPSIS : Many philosophers think that if you're morally responsible for a state of affairs, you must be a cause of it. In From Morality to the End of Reason, Ingmar Persson argues that this strand of common sense morality is asymmetrical in that it features the act-omission doctrine according to which there are stronger reasons against performing some harmful actions than in favour of performing any beneficial actions. He critically examines the concept of a rightand the conception of responsibility as causally-based, which results in replacing reasons of rights by reasons of beneficence to the effect that individuals be benefited, and we are made responsible for what is under the influence of our practical reasons. The argument gives rise to a symmetrical,consequentialist morality which is more demanding but less authoritative than common sense morality because reasons of beneficence are weaker than reasons of rights. The question is whether such a morality possesses enough authority to command our compliance.
📒Oxford Studies In Agency And Responsibility Volume 2 ✍ David Shoemaker
📝Oxford Studies in Agency and Responsibility Volume 2 SYNOPSIS : Oxford Studies in Agency and Responsibility is a series of volumes presenting outstanding new work on a set of connected themes in moral philosophy and philosophy of action. This special volume in the series presents ten new papers marking the fiftieth anniversary of P. F. Strawson's landmark essay, 'Freedom and Resentment'. Some of the papers offer critical interpretation of Strawson's essay, some expand on his insights into the nature of interpersonal relationships, and some develop his overall themes in new and challenging directions.
📒Agency And Responsibility ✍ Jeanette Kennett
📝Agency and Responsibility SYNOPSIS : Is it ever possible for people to act freely and intentionally against their better judgement? Is it ever possible to act in opposition to one's strongest desire? If either of these questions are answered in the negative, the common-sense distinctions between recklessness, weakness of willand compulsion collapse. This would threaten our ordinary notion of self-control and undermine our practice of holding each other responsible for moral failure. So a clear and plausible account of how weakness of will and self-control are possible is of great practical significance.Taking the problem of weakness of will as her starting point, Jeanette Kennett builds an admirably comprehensive and integrated account of moral agency which gives a central place to the capacity for self-control. Her account of the exercise and limits of self-control vindicates the common-sensedistinction between weakness of will and compulsion and so underwrites our ordinary allocations of moral responsibility. She addresses with clarity and insight a range of important topics in moral psychology, such as the nature of valuing and desiring, conceptions of virtue, moral conflict, andthe varieties of recklessness (here characterised as culpable bad judgement) - and does so in terms which make their relations to each other and to the challenges of real life obvious. Agency and Responsibility concludes by testing the accounts developed of self-control, moral failure, and moralresponsibility against the hard cases provided by acts of extreme evil.
📒Salvaging Wesley S Agenda ✍ Kevin Twain Lowery
📝Salvaging Wesley s Agenda SYNOPSIS : Kevin Twain Lowery believes that two of John Wesley's most distinctive doctrines--his doctrines of assurance and Christian perfection--have not been sufficiently developed. Rather, these doctrines have either been distorted or neglected. Lowery suggests that since Wesleyan ethics is centered on these two doctrines, they need to be recast in a schema that emphasizes the cognitive aspects of religious knowledge and moral development. Salvaging Wesley's Agenda constructs such a new framework in three stages. First, Lowery explores Wesley's reliance upon Lockean empiricism. He contends that Wesleyan epistemology should remain more closely tied to empirical knowledge and should distance itself from mystical and intuitionist models like Wesley's own spiritual sense analogy. Second, examining the way that Wesley appropriates Jonathan Edwards's view of the religious affections, Lowery shows that Wesleyan ethics should not regard emotions as something to be passively experienced. Rather, emotions have cognitive content that allows them to be shaped. Third, Lowery completes the new framework by suggesting ways to revise and expand Wesley's own conceptual scheme. These suggestions allow more of Wesley's concerns to be incorporated into the new schema without sacrificing his core commitments. The final chapter sketches the doctrines of assurance and perfection in the new framework. Assurance is based on religious faith and on self-knowledge (both empirical and psychological), and perfection is understood in a more teleological context. The result is a version of Wesleyan ethics more faithful to Wesley's own thought and able to withstand the scrutiny of higher intellectual standards.
📒Position And Responsibility ✍ Ilsup Ahn
📝Position and Responsibility SYNOPSIS : What is the moral criterion for those who hold power positions and authority in governments, corporations, and institutions? Ahn answers this question by presenting the concept of the positional imperative. The positional imperative is an executive moral norm for those who hold power positions in political and economic organizations. By critically integrating the Neo-Kantian reconstructionism of Jurgen Habermas with the Neo-Augustinian reconstructionism of Reinhold Niebuhr, through the method of co-reconstruction, Ahn identifies the positional imperative as an executive moral norm embedded in all power positions: Act in such a way not only to abide by laws, but also to come by the approvals of those affected by your positional actions. By uncovering this executive moral norm, Ahn argues that a position holder is not just a professional working for the system, but a moral executive who is willing to take the responsibility of his or her positional actions.
📒Moral Psychology ✍ Thomas Nadelhoffer
📝Moral Psychology SYNOPSIS : Moral Psychology: Historical and Contemporary Readings is the first book to bring together the most significant contemporary and historical works on the topic from both philosophy and psychology. Provides a comprehensive introduction to moral psychology, which is the study of psychological mechanisms and processes underlying ethics and morality Unique in bringing together contemporary texts by philosophers, psychologists and other cognitive scientists with foundational works from both philosophy and psychology Approaches moral psychology from an empirically informed perspective Explores a wide range of topics from passion and altruism to virtue and responsibility Editorial introductions to each section explain the background of and connections between the selections
📒The Reason Of The Gift ✍ Jean-Luc Marion
📝The Reason of the Gift SYNOPSIS : This book represents a continuation of Jean-Luc Marion’s work on givenness as a foundational concept. A former student of Jacques Derrida, Marion is known for his work in seventeenth-century French philosophy, for his theory of "God without being," and for his reformulation of phenomenology. Marion’s groundbreaking work on givenness is articulated through attentive readings in a striking array of philosophical texts. The four pieces collected here, based on the fall 2008 Richard Lectures at the University of Virginia, expand upon and go beyond the lines of Marion’s previous work and exemplify the intersection of his own constructive brilliance with his talent and rigor as a historian of philosophy. Reengaging philosophers long central to Marion’s own work (Husserl, Heidegger, Levinas) and highlighting the significance of lesser-known but decisive influences (Natorp, Rickert, Meinong), these lectures will be valuable to readers interested in the ongoing conversation seeking to bridge the divide between Continental and analytic philosophies, particularly through the exploration of common points of origin. These pieces tackle some of the most pressing debates in contemporary European philosophy and offer students of Marion material to ponder as they seek to further understand his influences. Taken together, these essays form an important volume by a major figure in contemporary philosophy.
📒Freedom And Responsibility ✍ Hilary Bok
📝Freedom and Responsibility SYNOPSIS : Can we reconcile the idea that we are free and responsible agents with the idea that what we do is determined according to natural laws? For centuries, philosophers have tried in different ways to show that we can. Hilary Bok takes a fresh approach here, as she seeks to show that the two ideas are compatible by drawing on the distinction between practical and theoretical reasoning. Bok argues that when we engage in practical reasoning--the kind that involves asking "what should I do?" and sifting through alternatives to find the most justifiable course of action--we have reason to hold ourselves responsible for what we do. But when we engage in theoretical reasoning--searching for causal explanations of events--we have no reason to apply concepts like freedom and responsibility. Bok contends that libertarians' arguments against "compatibilist" justifications of moral responsibility fail because they describe human actions only from the standpoint of theoretical reasoning. To establish this claim, she examines which conceptions of freedom of the will and moral responsibility are relevant to practical reasoning and shows that these conceptions are not vulnerable to many objections that libertarians have directed against compatibilists. Bok concludes that the truth or falsity of the claim that we are free and responsible agents in the sense those conceptions spell out is ultimately independent of deterministic accounts of the causes of human actions. Clearly written and powerfully argued, Freedom and Responsibility is a major addition to current debate about some of philosophy's oldest and deepest questions.